Sunday 26 March 2023

My First eBook

Writing a book can be a daunting task, but it can also be one of the most rewarding experiences of your life. As a first-time author(editor actually), I recently completed my first book and wanted to share my journey from idea to publication.

The idea for my book had been brewing in my mind for years, but it wasn't until I made a conscious effort to sit down and start writing that it began to take shape. First I thought to write a book on artificial intelligence using AI. But there are several books already available. So I postponed the topic. One day I was attending an online seminar on the eve of World Sleep Day. I got many insights to the topic and decided to write on that.

It was a public domain work. I used chatgpt to gather information. Then I gave it a shape of book using canva application. Once I had completed, I am not able to stay calm. I just started thinking where should I publish it. I have not taken any feedback from beta readers, family, and friends. First, I tried to publish it on Amazon Kindle. Then I tried to get a sponsor so that I can promote his products in the book. But, I was not able to wait. Somehow I want to test my book. So, I published it in gumroad. You can check it out from the link: .  However, you need a strong fanbase to grow your sales.

Submitting manuscript to multiple publishers and waiting for a response is a time consuming process. It may take several months of waiting. And you will get the delayed gratification. Working with the publisher is a collaborative process. You have to work together on editing, cover design, and marketing strategies. I handled the above processes alone. And found that marketing part is difficult for me.  

However, I will release this ebook on Amazon in April. It was an experience that allowed me to grow as a writer and as a person. This will help me to write my next book.

If you have an idea for a book, I encourage you to pursue it. Don't be afraid to take the leap and put your words out there for the world to see. The journey may not be easy, but it will be worth it in the end.

Thursday 9 March 2023

Understanding the Prokaryotes

Definition of prokaryotes:

Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles. Prokaryotes are the most ancient and abundant form of life on Earth and can be found in almost every environment. Understanding their characteristics and role in various processes is important in fields such as ecology, biotechnology, and medicine.

Characteristics of prokaryotes:

  • Lack of membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles: Prokaryotic cells have a simple structure compared to eukaryotic cells.
  • Presence of a single circular chromosome in the nucleoid region: The genetic material in prokaryotic cells is not contained within a membrane-bound nucleus.
  • Rigid cell wall for support and protection: Many prokaryotes have a rigid cell wall that provides structural support and protects the cell from the environment.

Classification of prokaryotes:

Prokaryotes are classified into two domains based on differences in their cell walls, membrane lipids, and other biochemical characteristics.

Two domains: Archaea and Bacteria


  • Also called as "Extremophiles" found in extreme environments: Archaea are often found in extreme environments, such as hot springs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and salt flats.
  • Unique membrane lipids for survival: The membrane lipids of Archaea are more resistant to high temperatures and other environmental stressors than those of Bacteria and eukaryotes.


  • More diverse and found in a range of environments: Bacteria are much more diverse than Archaea and can be found in a wide range of environments, from the human gut to soil and water.
  • Classified into several phyla based on cell wall structure and DNA sequence: Bacteria are classified into several phyla based on differences in their cell wall structure, DNA sequence, and other characteristics.

Role of prokaryotes in ecology:

  • Nitrogen cycle and carbon cycling: Prokaryotes play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, which is the process by which nitrogen is converted into various forms that can be used by plants and other organisms. They also play a role in carbon cycling, helping to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it in the soil.
  • Importance in soil health and plant growth: Prokaryotes in the soil help to decompose organic matter and make nutrients available to plants, contributing to soil health and plant growth.

Industrial applications of prokaryotes:

  • Food production (fermentation): Prokaryotes like bacteria are used to ferment food products such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles.
  • Bioremediation (breakdown of pollutants): Some bacteria can break down pollutants in contaminated soil or water, a process known as bioremediation.
  • Biotechnology (production of enzymes and antibiotics): Prokaryotes are used in biotechnology to produce enzymes and antibiotics.

Pathogenic bacteria:

Examples of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria: Pathogenic bacteria can cause a wide range of illnesses, from minor infections like strep throat to life-threatening diseases like tuberculosis and meningitis.

Importance of understanding these bacteria for treatment and prevention: Understanding the characteristics and mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria is essential in developing treatments and preventing the spread of disease.

Antibiotic resistance:

  • Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria: Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics through various mechanisms such as mutation, transfer of resistance genes through plasmids or transposons, and biofilm formation.
  • Importance of responsible use of antibiotics: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a significant public health threat, and responsible use of antibiotics is crucial in reducing the risk of resistance development.


  • Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles, and are classified into two domains: Archaea and Bacteria.
  • They play important roles in ecology, biotechnology, and medicine, and are essential in understanding the diversity of life on Earth.
  • Prokaryotes are the most ancient and abundant form of life on Earth, and studying them provides insight into the evolution and diversity of life on our planet.

Sunday 5 March 2023

Life 101: A Crash Course in Living Organisms

What is Life? An Introduction to the Characteristics of Living Organisms 

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities with biological processes, such as metabolism, growth, adaptation, and reproduction. These processes are carried out by cells, which are the basic units of life. Other characteristics of life include organization, responsiveness to stimuli, and the ability to evolve over time.

The Building Blocks of Life: Understanding Cells and Their Functions 

Cells are the fundamental units of life, composed of various structures such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. They carry out essential functions such as respiration, digestion, and synthesis of proteins and DNA. Cells also have the ability to divide and differentiate into specialized cell types.

The Origin of Life: Exploring Theories and Hypotheses 

The origin of life on Earth is still a topic of scientific debate, but various theories suggest that it may have originated from a combination of chemical and environmental factors, such as the presence of water, organic molecules, and energy sources. Some hypotheses suggest that life may have come from other planets or through panspermia.

Evolution and Adaptation: How Life Forms Change over Time 

Evolution is the process by which species change over time through natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation. This allows them to adapt to changing environments and develop new characteristics and traits that help them survive and reproduce.

Diversity of Life: Examining the Different Types of Organisms on Earth

There are a wide variety of living organisms on Earth, including bacteria, fungi, plants, animals, and humans. Each group has unique characteristics and adaptations that allow them to thrive in different environments.

Life Processes: From Metabolism to Reproduction 

Living organisms carry out a variety of essential processes, such as metabolism, respiration, digestion, and reproduction. These processes require energy and nutrients, which are obtained from the environment.

Life and the Environment: The Interdependence of Living Organisms and Their Surroundings 

Living organisms are intricately connected to their environment, and their survival depends on the availability of resources such as food, water, and shelter. They also play important roles in the ecosystem by interacting with other organisms and cycling nutrients and energy.

The Future of Life: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustaining Life on Earth 

Human activities such as pollution, deforestation, and climate change are threatening the survival of many species and ecosystems. However, there are also opportunities to mitigate these challenges through conservation, sustainable practices, and technological innovations.

The Ethics of Life: Discussing the Moral and Philosophical Implications of Living Organisms 

The study of life also raises important ethical and philosophical questions, such as the value of different forms of life, the ethics of animal testing and genetic modification, and the responsibility of humans to protect and preserve biodiversity.

Life Beyond Earth: Speculating on the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life 

The discovery of life beyond Earth would have profound implications for our understanding of the universe and our place in it. Scientists are actively searching for evidence of life on other planets and moons, and new discoveries may shed light on the nature of life and its potential for existence elsewhere.

Saturday 4 March 2023

Introduction to Cells: The Building Blocks of Life

What are Cells?

Cells are the basic unit of life and are the smallest living things that can perform all the functions of life. They come in many different shapes and sizes and can be found in all living organisms. Some examples of cells include bacteria, plant cells, and animal cells.

Types of Cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic cells are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells and do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells are more complex and larger than prokaryotic cells and have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Examples of prokaryotic cells include bacteria, while examples of eukaryotic cells include plant and animal cells.

Basic Structure of Cells: Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, and DNA

The cell membrane is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and regulates what enters and exits the cell. The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance inside the cell that contains the cell's organelles and is the site of many cellular processes. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material that carries the instructions for the cell's functions and is located in the nucleus (in eukaryotic cells) or the nucleoid (in prokaryotic cells).

Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells: Similarities and Differences

Both plant and animal cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA, but plant cells also have a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a large central vacuole. Animal cells do not have a cell wall, chloroplasts, or a central vacuole, but they do have specialized structures such as lysosomes and centrosomes.

Functions of Cells: Communication, Nutrient Uptake, and Waste Removal

Cells communicate with each other through various methods such as signaling molecules and gap junctions. Cells obtain nutrients through various methods such as diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis. Cells remove waste through various methods such as exocytosis and diffusion.

Importance of Cells in the Human Body:

Cells are the building blocks of tissues, organs, and organ systems in the human body. They perform various functions such as regulating body temperature, carrying oxygen, and fighting off infections. Understanding cells is essential for understanding the human body and developing treatments for diseases.

Future of Cell Research: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

Stem cells have the ability to develop into many different types of cells and have the potential to be used in regenerative medicine to treat a variety of diseases and injuries. Other areas of cell research include gene therapy, tissue engineering, and personalized medicine. Advancements in cell research have the potential to revolutionize medicine and improve human health in the future.

Thursday 2 March 2023

10 Interesting Facts about Human Brain

  1. The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons, each capable of connecting with thousands of others to form a complex network of communication.
  2. The brain consumes about 20% of the body's energy, despite only accounting for 2% of the body's mass.
  3. The brain is not capable of feeling pain because it has no pain receptors.
  4. The left and right hemispheres of the brain are responsible for different functions. The left side is typically associated with language and logical thinking, while the right side is associated with creativity and emotion.
  5. The brain can process information at a speed of up to 120 meters per second.
  6. The brain produces around 70,000 thoughts per day, with many of them being repetitive or negative.
  7. The hippocampus, a small structure located in the temporal lobe of the brain, is responsible for the formation and storage of memories.
  8. The human brain is about three times larger than that of other primates, despite the fact that our bodies are not significantly larger.
  9. The prefrontal cortex, located at the front of the brain, is responsible for decision-making, self-control, and working memory.
  10. The brain is capable of rewiring itself throughout our lives in response to new experiences and learning, a process known as neuroplasticity.

Comment below which point you found most interesting. 

Anorexia Nervosa: Understanding the Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment of an Eating Disorder

Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even when the individual is underweight. People with anorexia often have a distorted body image and view themselves as overweight, even when they are dangerously thin.

Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa:

One of the primary symptoms of anorexia is dramatic weight loss. Individuals with anorexia may also refuse to maintain a healthy body weight, often through restricting their food intake or excessive exercise. They may have a preoccupation with food and dieting and avoid social situations involving food. In some cases, individuals with anorexia may also purge or engage in other forms of disordered eating behaviors.

Other symptoms of anorexia may include a distorted body image, intense fear of gaining weight, and an obsessive exercise routine. Anorexia can also cause physical symptoms such as low blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature, as well as loss of menstrual periods in women.

Causes of Anorexia Nervosa:

The causes of anorexia are complex and often involve a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Studies have shown that individuals with a family history of eating disorders are more likely to develop anorexia. Additionally, certain personality traits, such as perfectionism, anxiety, and low self-esteem, may also contribute to the development of anorexia.

Environmental factors such as cultural pressures to be thin, exposure to media images that promote thinness, and traumatic life events may also play a role in the development of anorexia. Finally, certain biological factors, such as hormonal imbalances and abnormal neurotransmitter levels, may contribute to the development of anorexia.

Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa:

Anorexia nervosa is a serious condition that requires professional treatment. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a commonly used therapy for individuals with anorexia, as it helps to address the distorted thoughts and beliefs that contribute to the disorder.

Nutritional counseling is also an essential component of anorexia treatment, as individuals with anorexia often have poor eating habits and may be malnourished. A registered dietitian can work with the individual to develop a healthy meal plan and provide support in making dietary changes.

Finally, medication may also be prescribed to help with symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive behaviors that may be contributing to the disorder.


Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that can have severe physical and emotional consequences. It is essential to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of anorexia. Early intervention and treatment can lead to a more successful recovery, and with the right support, individuals with anorexia can learn to develop healthy eating habits and a positive body image.

Unveiling the Blueprint of Life: Exploring Biological Molecules

Building a house requires understanding the fundamental building blocks like bricks, wood, and concrete. Similarly, in the intricate world o...